Hard scientific evidence of the effects of diet, pharmaceutical drugs & lifestyle on health from over 1,400 studies from research centers, universities and peer reviewed scientific journals.

My aim is to make this website the No: 1 worldwide go to place to access the actual scientific papers on the subjects of statins, cholesterol and saturated fat.

Research by David Evans

Thursday, 30 July 2015

High LDL cholesterol levels associated with a 15% reduction in hospital death rates in heart attack patients

This study was published in the American Journal of Cardiology 2015 Mar 1;115(5):557-62

Study title and authors:
Relationship between serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and in-hospital mortality following acute myocardial infarction (the lipid paradox).
Reddy VS, Bui QT, Jacobs JR, Begelman SM, Miller DP, French WJ; Investigators of National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (NRMI) 4b–5.
F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: reddy.vanessa@gene.com
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25727079

This study investigated the association between cholesterol levels and in-hospital death rates in patients hospitalized for a heart attack. The study included 115,492 patients.

The study found:
(i) Patients with the highest LDL cholesterol levels had a 15% reduced risk of dying in hospital compared to patients with the lowest LDL cholesterol levels.
(ii) Patients with the lowest HDL cholesterol levels had a 20% increased risk of dying in hospital compared to patients with the highest HDL cholesterol levels.

Reddy concluded: "Lower LDL cholesterol levels associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality".

Sunday, 26 July 2015

Statin use associated with a 101% increased risk of diabetes

This study was published in Atherosclerosis 2015 Jul 15;242(1):211-217
 
Study title and authors:
Liver fat, statin use, and incident diabetes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Shah RV, Allison MA, Lima JA, Bluemke DA, Abbasi SA, Ouyang P, Jerosch-Herold M, Ding J, Budoff MJ, Murthy VL.
Department of Cardiology and Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209814

This study investigated the influence of statins and liver fat on type 2 diabetes. The study included 3,153 individuals who initially did not take statins and were without cardiovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes.

Regarding statins, the study found that individuals who took statins had a 101% increased risk of developing diabetes compared with individuals who did not take statins.

Tuesday, 21 July 2015

High saturated fat meat diet lowers risk of heart disease compared to low fat diet

This study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2015 Jul 15. pii: ajcn109116
 
Study title and authors:
Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.
Thorning TK, Raziani F, Bendsen NT, Astrup A, Tholstrup T, Raben A.
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark tkt@nexs.ku.dk.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26178720

High levels of HDL cholesterol and apo A-1 are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

This study explored the effects of high saturated fat cheese or meat based diets, compared to a low fat diet, on heart disease markers. The study included 14 overweight postmenopausal women who consumed each of the following three diets for two weeks. (All diets contained the same amount of calories.)
(i)  High-cheese (96-120-g) diet.
(ii) High-fatty meat group (contained the same amount of saturated fat as the high-cheese diet.)
(iii) Low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (contained lean meat and more carbohydrates than the other diets.)

The study found:
(a) The high-cheese diet led to a 5% increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels compared to the low-fat, high carbohydrate diet.
(b) The high-cheese diet led to a 8% increase in apo A-1 levels compared to the low-fat, high carbohydrate diet.
(c) The high-fatty meat diet led to a 8% increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels compared to the low-fat, high carbohydrate diet.
(d) The high-fatty meat diet led to a 4% increase in apo A-1 levels compared to the low-fat, high carbohydrate diet.

Thorning concluded: "Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of saturated fat cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet".

Saturday, 18 July 2015

Statin use associated with a 52% increased risk of Interstitial cystitis

This study was published in Urologia Internationalis 2015 Jul 16
 
Study title and authors:
Statin Use Is Associated with Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.
Huang CY, Chung SD, Kao LT, Lin HC, Wang LH.
Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184102

This study examined the association between statin use and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. The study included 815 female subjects with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and 4,075 randomly selected female controls.

The study found that statin users had a 52% increased risk of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis compared to nonusers.

Wednesday, 15 July 2015

Low levels of LDL cholesterol associated with a 65% increased risk of death in heart attack patients

This study was published in Critical Care Medicine 2015 Jun;43(6):1255-64

Study title and authors:
Lipid paradox in acute myocardial infarction-the association with 30-day in-hospital mortality.
Cheng KH, Chu CS, Lin TH, Lee KT, Sheu SH, Lai WT.
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738856

The Killip classification (four classes - I to IV) is a system used in individuals with a heart attack. Individuals with a low Killip class are less likely to die within the first 30 days after their heart attack than individuals with a high Killip class.

This study was designed to clarify the relationship between cholesterol levels, Killip classification, and 30-day mortality in patients with a heart attack. The study included 724 heart attack patients.

The study found:
(a) Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in high-Killip (III + IV) patients compared with low-Killip (I + II) patients.
(b) Patients with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol less than 62.5 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L) had a 65% increased risk of death compared with patients with patients with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol more than 62.5 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L).
(c) Patients with triglyceride levels less than 110 mg/dL (1.24 mmol/L) had a 405% increased risk of death compared with patients with patients with triglyceride levels more than 110 mg/dL (1.24 mmol/L).
(d) Patients with a high-Killip classification and with with triglycerides less than 62.5 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol less than 110 mg/dL (1.24 mmol/L) had a 10.9-fold higher risk of death than patients with a low-Killip classification with triglycerides greater than 62.5 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol greater than 110 mg/dL (1.24 mmol/L).

Cheng concluded: "Low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, low triglycerides, and high Killip severity were associated with significantly higher 30-day in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction".

Saturday, 11 July 2015

High red meat consumption associated with a 9% reduction in death from diabetes

This study was published in BMC Public Health 2015 Jul 10;15(1):633
 
Study title and authors:
Spatiotemporal variation in diabetes mortality in China: multilevel evidence from 2006 and 2012.
Zhou M, Astell-Burt T, Yin P, Feng X, Page A, Liu Y, Liu J, Li Y, Liu S, Wang L, Wang L, Wang L.
National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100050, China. maigengzhou@126.com.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159911

This study investigated diabetes death rates. The six year study included data from 73 million people.

Regarding red meat consumption, the study found, those who consumed the most red meat had a 9% lower death rate from diabetes than those who consumed the least red meat.

Regarding cholesterol levels, the study found, those who had the highest cholesterol levels had a 3% lower death rate from diabetes compared to those who had the lowest cholesterol levels.

Saturday, 4 July 2015

Statin use is associated with weight gain and a large increase in diabetes

This study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association International Medicine 2014 Apr 24
 
Study title and authors:
Different Time Trends of Caloric and Fat Intake Between Statin Users and Nonusers Among US Adults: Gluttony in the Time of Statins?
Sugiyama T, Tsugawa Y, Tseng CH, Kobayashi Y, Shapiro MF.
Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles2Department of Public Health/Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan3Depa.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24763487

This study examined the effects of statins on caloric intake, weight gain and diabetes. The study lasted eleven years and included 27,886 adults, 20 years or older, who completed a 24-hour dietary recall.

The study found over an 11 year period:
(a) The caloric intake of statin users increased by 9.6%.
(b) The caloric intake of non users DECREASED by 1.9%.
(c) The BMI of statin user increased by 1.3
(d) The BMI of non users increased by 0.5
(e) Diabetes increased by 7.8% in statin users.
(f) Diabetes DECREASED by 0.4% in non users.

This study shows statin use is associated with weight gain and a large increase in diabetes.